November 22, 2013

Jidosha Dojo 自動車道場 (Automobile studio)

Many of you agree that karate practice does not stay only in a dojo. Where do you practice outside the dojo? Some of you are lucky to have a big back yard or a large garage where you can do your practice. Some may go to a park or a school gym. What do you practice at those places? You can certainly practice kata and kihon. Can you practice kumite? Yes, only if you can find a partner. But most of the time you will have to practice by yourself so no kumite.

Dojo bus

Today I propose an idea of training in your car that includes makiwara and kumite practice. I call this “automobile dojo”. No, I am not proposing that you buy a bus or a big van to train inside. This idea does not include a loud ki-ai to the driver who is in the car next to you, or pounding your fist against the steering wheel to toughen it, or swinging your back fist to the passenger side head rest, either. In fact, what I will share with you will not propose any techniques and movements that are not related to driving itself. What I am proposing is only your normal driving but I will ask you to incorporate karate training to your driving and I will describe what and how.

Many people drive to and from work daily. Some of you may spend more than an hour in a car each way. This means you spend more time driving than training in your dojo every week. Wouldn’t you agree that it would be wonderful if you can add those hours to your karate training? You may say “I sometimes think about kata or other karate techniques but I cannot continue thinking about it because I am too busy driving”. It is true, and it may be too dangerous if you were day dreaming or paying attention to something other than driving. What I will explain is completely different from what you are probably expecting. In fact, what I suggest will improve your driving performance if you follow it correctly.

There are several different training syllabuses or menus. Let me share some of the main ones that you can include in your driving habit.

Menu #1: Distance practice

Little man syndrome truckOne thing you must remember is that your car is an extension of yourself. Now, this is a very important concept and I want the readers to fully understand this. So I will spend some time on this subject first. You already know that a meek person may feel braver when he is in a large truck than when he is in a smaller car. In his big truck he will not be intimidated by a small car even if its driver may be a big and muscular guy. This is one example of a concept of a car being an extension of yourself, but, I am not talking about this emotional feeling that can be created by what kind of a car one drives. What I am talking about is connected more to the physical aspect of your body when I say “extension”. In fact you must believe that the end of your body does not stop at the tip of your finger or your skin but it goes or extends further. It is true that there is a certain amount of space around you that you would consider a part of your “territory”. I am sure you have encountered a situation in your life more than once when a person passes you in front of you without saying “Excuse me”. I suspect you felt somewhat offended or invaded by this person or his act. If the distance between you and him was 100 meters or even 10 meters, you would not have cared. But you felt it was a very close distance so you expected a common courtesy of “Excuse me”. Why did you feel that courtesy was needed? It is simply because we all have a space around us that we feel it isproxemics diagram 2 “my” personal space or territory. In fact, there is a study called proxemics; the study of the cultural, behavioral, and sociological aspects of spatial distances between individuals. The amount of this distance varies a lot by the personal feelings and also by the cultural custom. In some Asian countries the distance tolerance is very close. For instance, a person behind you will stand very close to you when we are in line in Japan. I have been living in the US for many years so I often find myself feeling uncomfortable in the subway ticket line or a post office line when I visit Tokyo. Even within a same country the distances vary if you are in a city like New York or in a small village of a wide open state like Idaho. Of course, the distance tolerance is much higher in NY and a visitor from Idaho will probably feel very uncomfortable in a crowded New York City subway. If you are interested in learning more about proxemics you may want to access the following site;

So there is a space you recognize that is a part of you or you consider your space. What I will ask is to go further with this feeling. If you drive a small car in your daily life and if you have to drive a larger car you will feel uncomfortable especially when you have to park or drive through a narrow road or a bridge. You would feel even more uncomfortable or insecure if you have to drive a big van or a truck. This is a good example of body extension when you drive. An experienced bus driver or a truck driver has no problem even with a parallel parking and driving through a narrow bridge. He can “extend” himself to the outside of his bus or truck and knows exactly how far he (or his truck or bus) can or cannot go. He has the longer body distance than we (small car drivers) do. This is definitely a learned skill and a professional truck driver must go to a special school for this. This extended body distance ability can also apply to the use of a weapon such as a sword, a bo and a nunchaku. I will not go into this subject here as we are focusing our discussion with automobile driving right now but I am sure the readers can guess how it applies. We also talk about a long distance fighting method which is the characteristic of Shotokan karate compared to a short distance fighting method such as Goju-ryu. I believe the training method I will share will help both fighting styles but I think the benefit is bigger for the Shotokan practitioners as it will expand the territory or space that will be controlled by you.

I will present two types of training here that you can use to train in your car. One is automobile makiwara training. The other one is automobile kumite.

Makiwara tireBy automobile makiwara training I am not suggesting you to run into a post or make a makiwara with an old tire (though it is nice to have one). It is only a metaphor and I am suggesting you to pay more attention when you park your car in your garage or in a public parking lot. Your training is not to hit the front or the side (particularly the passenger side) of your car on anything around you. This is totally opposite of makiwara training as you are not supposed to hit anything in automobile makiwara training but it is still a distance practice. You must be able to extend yourself to the outline of your car. tight_squeezeThe obstacles in your garage or other parked cars can be your “partners”. If you are skilled in this training, your car will stay scratch free for many years. In addition, you will be an expert in parallel parking. Check your skill and see if you need more training or not.

In automobile kumite, I am not proposing to bump your car against another or attack the other cars or drivers. In fact, it is better called “automobile taisabaki” as you keep the correct distance from all the cars around you. The first thing you must do is to stop being a tailgater if that is your habit. tailgatingI will discuss more in Menu #4 but having sufficient distance between you and the car in front of you is very important. It may be easier on a highway or a freeway but it will take much more practice and close attention in a busy city street but that is the best kumite situation for you. In a dojo kumite you typically have only one opponent. You are lucky if your sensei puts you in a multiple opponent kumite but I am sure you will not usually face more than 2 or 3 opponents. On the other hand, what you can train on here is the distance training with many opponents (cars) around you, not only the ones in front of you but also the ones beside you and even behind you. I will talk more about the rear side training in Syllabus #3 as it requires a different technique. We will focus on the cars in front and beside. You will have at least three separate distance training here. With the car or cars in front of you your training is to keep the same distance with it or them. If it or they slow down check how soon you will react to the difference in the distance. The driver in the car in front of you may not pump the brake to alert you. Your training is to detect the distance difference by visual observation. This visual check from a car that is running at even moderate speed of 30 or 40 miles per hour will help you with your eye judgment in real kumite. The training with the cars on your sides will require more than a distance practice so I will further explain this in Menu #2.

Menu #2: Perceiving the other drivers’ intentionsParistraffic

Your training with the cars on your side or sides is to develop your alertness for a car that may turn into yours by mistake or cut in front of you without warning. If this happens you need to be ready to either swerve away or put on the brakes to avoid an accident. This is almost a training of reading the mind of the drivers in other cars around you. If you have a mind set for this training then you can develop a skill to detect a movement by the other driver and you can almost read his mind if he is thinking of turning in or not. A lot of time your car may be in a blind spot of the other driver and this is a dangerous moment. If you are alert then you can avoid an accident. Certainly, you need to pay attention to the other cars that may get into the blind spots of your car. You must not depend on a rear view mirror when you change lanes or turn corners. You must turn your head and verify with your own eyes that it is clear to the side you are turning into.

You must also be alert to the car in front of you. There are three cases; (1) a car or cars going the same direction, (2) coming towards you, (3) waiting at an intersection to cross the street. Let’s look at case (1), the same direction. You must always expect that the driver in front may have a sudden need to brake hard and stop. If you have a sufficient distance this action will not bring you into a scary situation but being ready all the time will give you a faster reaction and you will not need to brake hard yourself. This (not braking hard) will alleviate the possibility of getting hit by a car from the back. To avoid this type of accident it is better to have several separate pumps on the brake to let the other driver know that you are putting the brakes on. I will go further on the driver who is driving behind you but here again you must not assume that this driver is alert and is a safe distance away from you. Paying attention to the back is very important though you may not be the cause of the accident but who wants to be in an accident regardless of who is at fault.

In the case of (2), coming towards you, you also need to pay full attention as this driver may decide to turn in and cross the street in front of you. It is amazing but sometimes the driver in that car does not see your car or he may misjudge the distance and timing. You need to be ready for any sudden moves by a car that is approaching you. Do not assume the driver in that car will see you or will make a safe and proper judgment. This can apply to case (3), a car that is either merging into your lane from another lane or a car that is waiting at a cross street or an intersection that may suddenly get into your lane or cross the street in front of you. The key point here is “Never underestimate your opponent or situation”.

All these situations are taught at a driving school but we easily forget. Paying attention all of the time for all possibilities and be ready for them is the martial art mind. Driving a car is a perfect training opportunity to train and develop this attitude or mindset and after the training hopefully this will turn into an ability of being able to perform almost unconsciously.

Menu #3: Watching your back practiceWatch-your-back

Even though it will not be your fault when you are hit from behind but no one wants to have an accident so you must learn to keep the distance with the car that is behind you. If a car behind you likes to tail gate you the best option for you to change your lane. If there is no other lane then stop and let him pass you. This is common sense but not too many people follow this advice. What some people do is to step on the brake to scare the guy behind you. Sometimes it may work but other times it irritates or angers the other driver and may develop into a more dangerous situation. So, I strongly advise you not to use a braking action to your tail gating opponent.

Cop-In-Rearview-MirrorThere is another exercise you want to do for your backside training. A rear view mirror becomes very important here. Of course, I am not referring to its use to put your lipstick on or to fix your hair. This is to watch out for a police car. Most of the time you get caught by a police officer that was trailing behind you. By training this ability you will have less chance of receiving a traffic ticket and your automobile insurance will not go sky high. Seriously, a karate expert must not receive any ticket not just by observing the rear view mirror but by observing all the traffic laws and keeping them.

Menu #4: Controlling your emotion practicebut-you-didnt-have-to-cut-me-off-gotye-in-a-car

This training is a part of automobile kumite. When a careless or impolite driver may cut right in front of you, do not honk or get upset. What you need to do is to let off your accelerator so you will slow down and allow more space between your car and his. As the driver in front of you is either careless or impolite he is not a safe driver. Pay more attention to this car and exercise Syllabus 2. When you are having a bad day this small incident may upset you. Of course you need to train your feelings so that you will not let the feelings dictate your reactions. In addition, you need to work on Syllabus 2 more so that a surprise move by a car next to you will not happen. If you can detect the feeling that this car is getting into your lane, you will let off the accelerator a little and make a space in front of you.

There is another situation when you need to control your feelings. You either cut in by mistake or drive too safely (slowly) and get another driver angry. If you offended another driver by cutting in by mistake then the best thing to do is to signal your apology. Most of the time the other driver may be upset but he will forgive you if you wave your hand and apologize. However, there may be a driver who gets so upset and who needs to show his anger by retaliating. This person may want to pass you quickly and cut in front of you. If this happens the best thing to do is to go slower and let this person pass you. Keep the distance from this person and the best strategy is to ignore this unhappy driver. There are many unhappy or upset drivers who are looking around for an emotional outlet. You do not want to get caught by a person like this. There is no reason for you to be a target of this negative feeling and you should not let this person risk your safety as well as that of your loved ones.

This is a very good training to keep yourself calm in a conflict situation. Interestingly a person becomes impolite or rude in a non-face-to-face situation like a car incident. This seems to be truer with a male. If you happen to meet him in a supermarket or in a library this person may offer to open the door for you or may say “After you” to let you go first. This non face to face situation in traffic encourages a person to be less polite or considerate. This situation is probably less common with a woman. Whether you are a man or a woman, avoid those impolite people and keep a good ma-ai from those people who are looking for a trouble.

Menu #5: Driving with minimum brake action

142991_pollute_ALS_Now I will complete my article with the most challenging training syllabus for Jidosha Dojo. The idea is simple and clear but doing it correctly and safely can be very challenging. Driving with minimum braking action is fairly easy on a freeway where you have a little traffic. You can set your car on a cruise control and just drive. However, once you are in a town or a city and if you have to drive on a city street it will not be so easy. Why am I adding this as a syllabus? Is this something a retired person with a lot of time but not enough excitement wants? No, this syllabus will require a lot of mind work and discipline. One is distance perception involving the other cars, traffic lights and other traffic signs and obstacles. Another is time perception when to step on a brake and when to release it. You will also have to fight against your desire to speed up some times but you will need to make a judgment if that is required or advisable. In the end your driving will improve and your car will perform very smoothly. The passengers in your car will not feel any jerky and quick stopping movements. They will also feel very safe as your car just glides through the traffic like a flying carpet. It is true that some of the drivers behind you may not like the way or the speed you are driving. Your driving style may be different and unusual. They may honk or yell at you. I advise that you will let them pass you quickly so you can keep you smiling.

There are, of course, other syllabuses you can incorporate in Jidosha Dojo training such as breathing, stretching, reaction, etc. But if you get good at these five exercises I listed here your car performance will change and you will drive differently. It will A-Happy-Drivercertainly be much safer. You will most likely avoid receiving any traffic tickets. You will have much less chance of getting involved in a car accident. Initially you may find it challenging but once you get used to it or when you master the art, you will enjoy your driving much much more. In addition, you will realize that the Jidosha Dojo training will help you with your karate in both physical and mental aspects.

One thing I can confidently say is that what I am proposing here will increase the safety of your driving experience even if it does not help you with your karate. Another thing I want to add is a controversial statement. If you claim that you are a karate or martial art expert then you must be able to prove this by your driving history. A diploma that may show a high rank is not good enough for a true qualification. One qualification a karate expert must produce is a clean traffic history and record since the time he began to call himself a karate expert. I consider what I am stating here is very fair. However, I wonder how many karate experts can share their driving history to satisfy this qualification.

Whether you wish to try out my training ideas or not, Jidosha Dojo, is your choice and I do not expect all the readers will do it. But think of your life without any accidents and traffic tickets. Isn’t it worth giving it a try even for a short period of time and see if it will make any difference?

November 21, 2013

Was bedeutet der Begriff „Sensei“?

Was bedeutet der Begriff „Sensei“?

Wir wissen alle, dass Sensei als „Ausbilder“, oder „Lehrer“ übersetzt wird. Diese Übersetzung ist korrekt, also besteht darin kein Problem.
Ich bekomme einige Fragen bezüglich der Qualifikationen, welche einen Sensei ausmachen. Hier scheint es einen unerwähnten, oder unerklärten Bereich zu geben, welcher für Rätsel im Karatetraining sorgt. Ich mag Rätsel nicht, deshalb werde ich mein Verständnis für den Begriff „Sensei“ mit Ihnen teilen. Ich hoffe, dass es Ihnen bei der Beurteilung, oder auf der Suche nach einem Lehrer helfen wird.

Lassen Sie uns zuerst die Schriftzeichen für „Sensei“ betrachten (先生), welche uns zu einem besseren Verständnis dieses Begriffes verhelfen könnten. Vielleicht erinnern Sie sich an unsere Betrachtung des Zeichens „先“ in dem Wort „Senpai“: Es bedeutet „fortgeschritten“, „voraus“, „älter“, „zuerst“ usw. Aber was ist mit „生“? Dieses bedeutet „Geburt“, oder „Leben“. Insofern bedeutet es wörtlich, dass jemand früher geboren wurde. In anderen Worten heißt es, dass dies eine ältere Person ist, als Sie selbst. Es verrät jedoch nichts über das Alter, oder die Fähigkeiten dieser Person. Interessant, nicht wahr? Die japanische Auffassung besteht also darin, dass man von denjenigen lernt, die älter sind als man selbst, da sie angeblich mehr Erfahrung haben und daher sind sie weiser. Diese Auffassung dürfte nicht allzu sehr überraschend sein, wenn Sie sich an die japanische Vorstellung des zeitlichen Vorranges erinnern, unabhängig davon, ob Sie damit einverstanden sind, oder nicht.

Seiza formal without background

Nun sagen Sie: „OK, ich bin 50 Jahre alt und mein Ausbilder erst 25, also genau halb so alt wie ich. Kann er mein Lehrer sein?“
Um diese Frage zu beantworten, müssen wir die Auffassung von Zeit auf Karate-Verhältnisse umstellen. Nehmen wir an er hatte vor zehn Jahren mit Karate begonnen und Sie erst vor fünf Jahren. Er ist Ihr Senpai im Karate. Wenn er regelmäßig in Ihrem Dojo unterrichtet, dann ist er Ihr Sensei. In einem Dojo zählt der Altersunterschied nicht und der zeitliche Vorrang hängt davon ab, wann man mit Karate angefangen hat. Ob dieser Sensei reif genug ist, um geachtet zu werden und in der Lage ist, Sie auf einem Weg im Leben zu führen, ist eine andere Geschichte.

Eine weitere Person fragte mich: „Mein Lehrer ist erst Nidan. Ich dachte, dass ein echter Lehrer Yondan, oder höher sein sollte. Als was sollte ich ihn nun ansehen?“
Meine Antwort ist: „Er ist Ihr Sensei.“
Jeder, der im Unterricht vorne steht und diesen leitet, gilt als Lehrer, unabhängig von seinem Grad. Ob dieser qualifiziert ist, zu unterrichten (durch ein Zertifikat berechtigt), oder nicht, ist eine andere Frage. Außerdem macht eine Lizenz zum Unterrichten nicht sofort einen guten Sensei aus. Ich kenne einen Nidan, der diesen Grad seit 30 Jahren trägt. Sein Training und seine Unterrichtserfahrung übersteigen womöglich die eines jungen Yondan. Ich habe auch schlecht geplante Anweisungen von älteren Leitern (7. und 8. Dan) gesehen. Der entscheidende Punkt besteht darin, dass der Lehrer begeistert genug ist, um das Wissen und die Kenntnisse, die er besitzt, zu teilen. Wenn Sie etwas von ihm lernen können, dann ist er Ihr Sensei. Wenn Sie kein Bisschen von ihm lernen, dann können Sie jederzeit das Dojo verlassen und sich ein anderes Dojo, oder einen anderen Sensei suchen.

Wir erwarten von unserem Sensei mehr zu sein, als jemand, der uns nur beibringt wie man schlägt und tritt. Das ist wahr, denn der Karate-Do ist mehr als nur Schlagen und Treten. Sie haben Glück, wenn Ihr Sensei Ihnen mehr als das beibringen kann. Können wir das von einem Sensei erwarten, der 25, oder 30 Jahre alt ist? Manche könnten sehr reif sein und viele Jahre des Trainings hinter sich haben, doch die Meisten davon sind zu jung und ihnen mangelt es an diesen Eigenschaften. Haben Sie also keine falschen Erwartungen von einem jungen Sensei. Seine minimalen Verpflichtungen als Übungsleiter bestehen darin in der Lage zu sein Karate-Techniken beibringen zu können. Das bedeutet, dass er diese Techniken zeigen und erklären kann. Auf der anderen Seite besitzen nicht alle fortgeschrittenen und älteren Lehrer diese Eigenschaften und Qualifikationen. Reife und Weisheit kommen nicht unbedingt mit dem Alter. Viele von ihnen verlieren ihre Form. Wenn ein Übungsleiter übergewichtig und nicht in Form ist, um eine Technik vorzuführen, dann betrachte ich diesen nicht als verantwortungsvoll.

Mir gefällt das, was Musashi vor einigen Jahrhunderten sagte. Er sagte, dass jeder, außer ihm selbst, ein Lehrer für ihn ist. Ich folge dieser Idee. Meine eigentlichen Lehrer (Sugano und Asai) sind tot und beerdigt. Ich glaube aber, dass mein jetziger Lehrer jeder ist, der in meinem Leben auftaucht, egal ob er eine Kampfkunst ausübt, oder nicht. Ich möchte etwas von jeder Person und allen Erfahrungen in meinem Leben lernen (sei es gut, oder schlecht). Das ist meine Philosophie und ich erwarte von den Lesern nicht, dass sie mit dieser einverstanden sind, oder sie akzeptieren.


Wie Sie sich Ihren Sensei aussuchen ist Ihnen überlassen. Jeder von uns hat unterschiedliche Erwartungen und Zielsetzungen im Training. Ich hoffe, dass Sie einen Sensei haben, mit dem Sie zufrieden sind. Wenn nicht, dann hoffe ich, dass Sie einen finden, mit dem Sie zufrieden sein werden und von dem Sie eine Menge lernen können.

Wenn Sie ein Sensei in einem Dojo sind, dann ist die minimale Anforderung an Sie die korrekte Lehre der Karate-Techniken. Das bedeutet, dass Sie in Form sein sollten, um die Techniken, die Sie unterrichten, nicht nur erklären, sondern auch vorführen zu können. Ergänzend dazu hoffe ich, dass Sie mehr als nur die Karate-Techniken aufbieten. Viele Ihrer Schüler erwarten dies von Ihnen.


Optional disclaimer about the genders:
Yokota-Sensei verwendete in dem englischen Original die geschlechtsunterscheidenden Begriffe „he/she“ im Bezug auf den Lehrer. Im Englischen ist das machbar, doch im Deutschen wird es durch die zahlreichen Artikel und Wortendungen zusätzlich erschwert und führt zu einem schwer lesbaren Text mit vielen Schrägstrichen und Klammern. Ich habe mich in der Übersetzung dazu entschlossen, den Begriff „Lehrer“ auf das männliche Geschlecht zu reduzieren, was keineswegs zu einer Dezimierung des weiblichen Geschlechtes führen, sondern lediglich dem Zweck der Textkürzung und Lesbarkeit dienen sollte.


What part of your foot do you use when you turn?

In the past I have received questions from many people, in essence asking something like this; “When we turn, what part of our foot should we use as a pivoting point?” They specifically asked if they should turn on the ball or on the heel of the foot when they make a body rotation. We all know it is very important for all karate practitioners to be able to turn quickly and smoothly. In fact, I consider this an independent technique. Today I will attempt to provide a short essay to describe my understanding of this technique. I would like to hear back from the readers whether they agree or disagree or don’t care.

Now before we talk about turning, we need to pay attention to and understand two important concepts; “center of mass” and “center of gravity”. They are different but for our discussion they are interchangeable. I will quote some parts from Wikipedia to explain the definitions of the center of mass and the center of gravity.

In physics, the center of mass, of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero. The distribution of mass is balanced around the center of mass and the average of the weighted position coordinates of the distributed mass defines its coordinates.


Calculations in mechanics are simplified when formulated with respect to the center of mass. In the case of a single rigid body, the center of mass is fixed in relation to the body, and if the body has uniform density, it will be located at the centroid. The center of mass may be located outside the physical body, as is sometimes the case for hollow or open-shaped objects, such as a horseshoe.

A center of gravity (Wikipedia again):

In physics, a center of gravity of a material body is a point that may be used for a summary description of gravitational interactions. In a uniform gravitational field, the center of massserves as the center of gravity. This is a very good approximation for smaller bodies near the surface of Earth, so there is no practical need to distinguish “center of gravity” from “center of mass” in most applications, such as engineering and medicine.


So I have a choice for the term and I will use the center of gravity in my discussion. To shift the body even to take a simple step, you need to shift the center of gravity. Believe it or not, you cannot simply stand up from a chair if your head is prevented from shifting forward. Try the following experiment; have your friend sit up straight in a chair and you place the tip of your index finger on his forehead and prevent him from leaning forward. Challenge him to stand up and see if he can. You will find that it is impossible for him to stand up normally until you let go of his forehead.

First of all, do you know exactly how your foot is constructed? If you don’t know how your racing car is constructed you will never be a world class race car driver. The principle is the same with our body though our body construction is much more complex and precise than a racing car or even the most advanced jet fighter. Here is an illustration of our foot. You probably had some idea that the bone structure of your foot looked like this. However, I suspect you have not paid close attention to the finer details of the bones that make up this precise mechanism called the foot. The human foot and ankle is a complex mechanical structure containing 26 bones, 33 joints, 19 muscles and tendons, and 107 ligaments.


The precise numbers are not important. What is important is the you realize that your foot is made of a very complex construction. The muscles and the ligaments are around these bones so that you can make numerous precise movements with your foot. One of those precise movements is walking. It is not possible to do a simple walk without the harmonious workings of the muscles, tendons and ligaments of our feet. I am always so impressed and truly thankful whenever I study the mechanism of our body. Don’t you agree that it is really a work of a genius and that our body, indeed, is a master piece?

 Believe it or not the first human like robot that could walk like us became possible only in the year 2000. A robot called ASIMO (Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility, photo right) was designed by Honda and introduced in October 2000. I wanted to mention this because the precise mechanism of bi-pedal walking is unique. Bi-pedalwalking (and leaving the front legs or hands free) was necessary for the Homo sapiens to set themselves apart from the other primates. Bi-pedal walking can be easily perceived as a simple body movement but it is incredibly complex and difficult to be imitated by a machine. I have covered this topic in one of my books so I will not repeat it in this article. The point I want to emphasize is that we must never think light of the abilities of our body that were given to us.



Back to the original question…What part of our foot do we use when we turn? My answer is that there are basically three different ways to turn and the part you will use will depend on the situation. One situation is a turn in position or an in place bodily rotation (photo left). In this case you will line up the center of gravity through one leg (pivoting leg), hips, torso, and shoulder area and all the way up to the center of your head. If you can line up all these parts as straight as possible then your turn can be smooth and fast. This turn is often used in dancing, figure skating and gymnastics to name a few. A body rotation technique can be found in various karate katas such as; Kanku dai, Gankaku, Junro Yondan, etc to name a few. If you are familiar with these katas you will know which parts of the kata require the rotation. In these cases, you need to use the part that is directly below your shin bones. Again take a look at the illustration of a foot (below).

You may have a misconception that the lower legs were made up of only one bone. Actually, there are two bones; the tibia and fibula. There are two so that you can rotate and move your foot just the same as we have two bones in our forearm to move and rotate our hand.


As shown in the illustration they are not positioned in the center of your foot. The ankle is the point where these bones are connected and we now know the ankle is located nearer to the heel than to the toes. We also notice that there is an arch and that the foot is concaved inward in the midsection of the foot. This means there is no protruding point directly under the ankle to turn on. This makes it extremely difficult to turn at the best point, directly underneath the ankle. So most dancers use the heel part or the contact point of the bone called calcaneus. However, it is difficult to keep the balance if the rotation is complex or multiple, so as an alternative they can use the ball of the foot, the area underneath the third joints of the toes. Turning on the ball of the foot requires much more precision but we have the tools (joints and muscles) to control the turn and balance with the front part of the foot. The area of the ball of foot is rather large (illustration below).


The senior professional dancers would use only one spot (the best spot will be under the middle toe though some may choose under the big toe because it is usually the strongest toe) but the inexperienced dancers may float the spinning point across the foot which results a slower and a poorly balanced turn.

 For an in-place rotation, the area underneath the ankle is themost recommended spot as it gives the best balance for the simple rotations that are found in most of the kata. However, we have discussed and pointed out that this method is the most challenging and most difficult one to use. I propose to the readers as the best alternative is to use the heel. I recommend the readers should try to bring the turning point as close to the spot directly under the ankle.

Sorry to have started with the most challenging technique. There are two other turning methods that are easier and you are probably already doing them. To turn as you are moving forward (for instance the left gedan barai move after the first ki-ai in Heian Shodan), you will want to use the ball of the foot. As I have mentioned earlier the center of the foot (third joint) is the best specific pivoting part in the foot. In a standard Shotokan dojo I suspect that you were taught to keep our body up right when you shift your body. As you advanced in your training, you might have found that it is better to lean your upper body slightly to the direction of your turn. By doing this you found that you can move faster and smoother. The first move of Bassai dai may be an excellent example. Even though an excessive amount of incline would be counterproductive, you want to incline slightly towards the turning side. Let’s take an example of the move I mentioned above in Heian Shodan after the first ki-ai. You want to incline slightly to the right as you turn from the right zenkutsu to left zenkutsu gedan barai. In this turning you may use a different part of your foot. It is still the ball of the foot area but maybe closer to or at the edge of the right foot. This requirement is the same with any other physical activities such as football.


See the player in the photo. He is inclining to his right as he makes a quick right turn. If you can expand the right foot area of the photo you can see that the runner is turning on the ball of the right foot and at the little toe side of his foot. Football has much more complex running and foot movement requirements in its play than in the karate kata. Thus, we cannot adopt the steep incline they use but the concept or objective of quick and smooth turn is the same. This will require a fine aligning of your foot to the leg bones. You may ask why.


Take a look at the illustration of the leg bones. Just to line up the leg you have to pay attention first to the hip joint, then the knee joint and the ankle in addition to the numerous other small joints in your foot. This is only in your leg. For the entire body, you have the joints of many other parts of your body but for our discussion let’s focus on the leg area alone. What is the key for a good turn? Simply put, the fewer joints you use in your body alignment the easier you can keep the balance and turn smoothly. It does not take a rocket scientist to understand this logic. Let’s look at a top which you must have played with when you were a child. It can demonstrate a beautiful spin or rotation. As you know the axis is straight and short. But imagine if the axis was long and made of several pieces that were not lined up straight. How about if those pieces are not firmly connected? Can such a top spin?


That is almost how our body is constructed. Now you know why it is difficult for us to spin. Look at the illustration of the foot again and you can see that the bone structure of the heel area is much simpler. The front area that covers the toes is much more complex. This is natural as we normally walk forward and less frequently backward. Then, can we do a turn moving forward using the heel part of our foot? Yes, it is possible so you can. You may feel more stable by turning on the heel, however, turning on the ball of the foot will give you a much faster turn.

Then what is the third method? You can easily guess that it is a turn as you move backward. Remember the third move of Heian Shodan? After the second move (right chudan oizuki) you will step back with your right leg and turn 180 degrees to make right zenkutsu with right gedan barai. What part of your foot do you think that you will use to do this turn? Yes, this was an easy question. Most of you probably said “heel”. As you step back it is natural and easy to shift the center of gravity to the heel. One word of caution on a heel use. The heel area (calcaneus) is a simple bone structure and it is a blessing in one way. At the same time, it can make your turn more challenging. The heel area is simple without the joints and ligaments. This means you are unable to do the fine tuning that can be done with the ball of the foot area. To master the heel area turning, you will need to do a lot of practicing and learn how to be stable and well balanced during the turn.

 To be able to execute the most effective body turns in your karate, you need to be able to manage all three different turning methods.


A turn may look simple but the mechanism to deliver the most effective turn certainly is not. A good turn is important in all athletic games. So I’m sure you’ll agree that it is also extremely important in karate if you happen to be serious with perfecting your techniques. Shotokan is labeled as a linear or straight movement martial art. If you look at our kihon it may look linear but when you observe the expert Shotokan practitioners perform we all witness our karate is filled with circular techniques and body movements. Asai ryu karate is a great example of this as it adopts many tenshin (body rotation) techniques.

Did I give you too much information? Maybe so, but it will make more sense to you as you read this article several times. You may think this information was written only for the advanced practitioners or the instructors. Even though I want the instructors to read the information written here, I was also thinking of the beginner and the intermediate level practitioners. It is better for the beginners to learn the techniques correctly at the early stage of their training. As you known once you form a habit it will be very difficult to change or correct later. The ability to turn correctly is much more important than most practitioners give a credit for. When you play basketball, football or tennis, isn’t a superior turning ability important and necessary? If so, then why not in karate? To improve your karate you know that you need to practice all three K elements of karate; kihon, kata and kumite. Regardless of which K element you may be practicing, one of the key requirements for your improvement is that you master the techniques of perfect turning. Good training.

by Shihan Yokota

More information about Karate (Shotokan, Shito Ryu, Wado Ryu and Goju Ryu) – visit the most comprehensive Karate website in the world and join the


November 15, 2013

Karate Instructors Injury Survey (KIIS)

Dear Karateka around the world. I want to ask anybody who has a true passion for Karate and has more than 10 years of experience to help collect data for this survey. Please read more below:

Dr. Alex Sternberg
516 652-3211 (cell)

Dear Karatekas and Friends,

I am enclosing a detailed information sheet regarding the KARATE INSTRUCTOR’S INJURY SURVEY.

I am asking for your help in publicizing and disseminating this survey among your members and readers.

As my information sheet clearly states, this survey is completely anonymous and the privacy of all respondents are strictly protected. This project has been approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the SUNY College of Medicine School of Public Health toward my research and dissertation for a Doctor of Public Health degree. ( approval # 483426-1)

Privacy and anonymity of all respondents is guaranteed by the IRB at Downstate and any correspondence may be directed to Dr. John Meyer ( HYPERLINK"",the chairman of the Environmental and Occupational Health division at the School of Public Health.

This survey is anon-partisan, non style, non organizational project, who’s only purpose is to gather information on the frequency and severity of injuries associated with long term karate practice.

I hope to publicize this survey, with your help, among all US Karate practitioners and instructors, regardless of what style they practice or what organization (if any) they may belong to.



During the past 20 years, we have heard with increasing frequency, stories about injuries and surgeries (not sustained at tournaments) among those karate-kas who have practiced for 10, 20 or 30 years and more. Such injuries seem to be connected with training and over use.

Why is this happening and how much of a problem is this? What is the cause of such over use injuries and who is most susceptible?

It is my opinion, that it behooves us in the leadership of our industry to investigate this issue.

Many other sports, such as boxing, football, baseball and others, once made aware of preventable injuries sidelining their athletes, took steps to control and reduce such risk associated with their sport. We, in karate must also take steps to protect our athletes and future instructors. The first step is to survey American karate-kas to determine the prevalence of such injuries. My survey seeks to answer some of these questions and to investigate the magnitude of this problem.

Please write an editorial bringing my survey to your readers attention with a plea for their cooperation in filling out my survey. Feel free to include my information letter and the link to the survey.

Should you want to contact me for more information, I will be delighted to work with you in order to help you to help me.

Thank you

Dr. Alex Sternberg


For any more information, please contact me:

Karate Instructors Injury Survey (KIIS)
To enter the survey please click on this hyperlink:

November 15, 2013

Kuro Obi 黒帯 (Black Belt)

When you hear the term “black belt” I am sure it means more than just a black colored belt to you. For the karate practitioners it means our pride and many years of hard training. For the non-practitioners it may mean an expertise in karate or a dangerous person which we think funny.

Kuro ObiBecause of the movie, Kuro Obi, this Japanese term has become well known to many of the karate practitioners. The movie was not at a Hollywood level but a JKA instructor, Sensei Naka, co-starred. I would say it is interesting to see a real Shotokan instructor playing in a karate movie. Here is the URL to watch the entire movie:

Whatever the color your belt may be, you certainly wear it every time you train. It is so much a part of our karate training, yet there are many facts about karate belts that you may not know. You might have wondered about something related to a karate belt in the past and maybe you are still looking for the answers. The subjects here are, more or less, only the trivia of karate but I think they are interesting. To some extent, it is important for all of us to know and appreciate some facts. For that reason, I hope this article will help you with your better understanding of karate and its culture.

The dan rank and the black belt system in karate is itself an interesting and a puzzling subject. We must look at the history to understand where this belt system came from. Many of the readers may already know that there was no belt system in the Okinawa karate that was introduced to Japan by Master Funakoshi. Did you know that Funakoshi adopted this system from judo? The founder of judo, Jigoro Kano (1860 – 1938) was a very educated man who was also very talented and successful in business and academic arena. Gigoro KanoFor instance, he founded judo in late 19th century (1882 to be exact) and within a short period of time the membership of his dojo increased to several thousand members. He was also one the first representatives of the Olympic Committee from Japan. I suspect he invented the dan system about the same time he created judo from jujitsu. As you may know that judo and Kano had a huge influence on Shotokan karate at the early stage of Funakoshi teaching in Tokyo. In fact, the name of the style, Shotokan, believe it or not, shows its influence. The name of judo headquarters was Kodokan and it was a very reputable name in the martial arts society in Tokyo at that time. Thus, Funakoshi adopted the “kan” (Hall or Building) part in Shotokan, probably, hoping to build his dojo as big as Kodokan. There was another reason why Funakoshi chose Shotokan for his dojo name. He believed in having one karate and did not want to create his style, ryu. There was only one organization, Kodokan, in judo and he liked it. This is exactly what he wanted to see with karate and he used Shotokan for his dojo and refused to use “ryu”. This is why Shotokan has no ryu at the end of its name like Shito-ryu and Goju-ryu. Some people recently (ignorant, I am afraid) are referring our karate as Shotokan-ryu which I do not think Master Funakoshi would appreciate or approve. Here is a link to Wikipedia on Jigoro Kano if you are interested in learning more about this interesting man:

Red & White BeltOK let’s go back to kuro obi, Funakoshi granted the first dan diploma to a few of his students as early as in 1924, two years after he migrated to Tokyo. In the early period of Shotokan karate the highest rank one could attain was Godan (5th degree) as they followed suit to the system in judo. As the population of judo increased Kodokan expanded its highest dan rank to 10th dan. Thus karate followed the rule change and the highest rank in Shotokan is 10th dan now. In some styles of karate a higher degree wears a different color belt. A practitioner of 6th, 7th or 8th dan would wear a red and white belt. For 9th and 10th dan a full red belt may be worn. These belts are also the imitation from the judo policy. Obviously Funakoshi did not like this idea so he did not adopt it. The Shotokan practitioners only use a black belt for all dan ranks.

belt with stripesIn other styles, the stripes are embroidered on the belt to show one’s rank. It is true that you cannot tell one’s rank if his belt is plain. I personally do not like this idea to make the ranks visible. I do not wish to criticize the other styles but I do not like it. In fact, I like the idea of a black belt turning into almost white after many years of wearing. I am proud to wear an old belt as it shared my daily training for many years. Old beltI sometimes come across with a few Shotokan practitioners who wear a belt with the stripes. I am sure they are ignorant about our tradition. I want them to know that it is Shotokan tradition to use only a plain black belt.

Kendo is another budo that has a dan system and their highest rank used to be 10th dan rank. It is interesting that in the year of 2000 the All Japan Kendo Federation decided to drop the 9th and the 10th dan ranks thus 8th dan is the highest rank one can attain now in kendo.

What I will bring up next is one particular subject about the karate dan rank system that, I consider, should be discussed more frequently. This is something that you all know well but it has not been discussed openly.

In many of the sports or athletic events they have their own ranking systems. For instance, in boxing it is divided into many weight divisions or classes and in each division they have the world ranks. I am also aware that there are different groups such as WBC, WBA, WBO, etc. and each one has its own ranks but I will not go into this part for our discussion today. The point I wish to bring up is the fact that the ranking systems in boxing are fluid and not permanent. In other words, your rank whether it is first (champion) or 100 will not stay permanently (though such a record may be kept as the historical ranking). It goes down when you lose in a fight and your rank disappears when you retire from the fighting. This is not the case in karate as well as in all budo. Once a dan rank is granted a practitioner will have that rank permanently. He can get promoted but the rank will never come down. I am aware that ranking system of the sports (boxing, tennis, etc.) are different in its objective from the budo’s dan ranks. In fact, judo now has the competitors ranking system called World Ranking (by IJF) that is unrelated to the dan rank system. I believe a dan rank is given on the belief that this particular practitioner will continue his training so that his ability will not deteriorate, in fact, it is expected only to improve. But the sad fact is that many people do not continue their training and quit. Only a handful will remain and train throughout their life. In addition, at a certain age one reaches the maximum of his physical ability and the skill level may even come down despite the continuing of the practice. It is an honorable thing to receive a dan rank and we should be proud of it. At the same time, I feel that the integrity and the substance of the dan ranks must be there to mean anything to us. It is a big shame but there are too many bogus and self-promoted ranks. I can truly understand why Funakoshi sensei refused to receive any dan ranks.

Let’s move on to another interesting subject. Have you ever wondered why kyu rank starts from 8th (at some dojo from 10th) and the rank decreases down to one kyu as a student progresses? Once you reach Shodan or the first degree black belt, the rank increases as you get promoted. When I first joined JKA 50 years ago I wondered why I did not start from 1 kyu. I wondered why the kyu system would not take an increasing system like the dan system and of course I could not ask such a thing to our teacher. Many years later I found that the kyu system had been intentionally structured this way. Let me share the concept behind this system and hopefully you will see the logic.

The fundamental concept of martial arts is that a student is not expected to start a real karate training until you become Shodan (first degree black belt). Some of you may know or practice a custom of making a new Shodan to wear a white belt for a short period of time (a month or so). This custom is to let a new Shodan know that he is now starting a real karate training or he is finally at the starting point of real learning of karatedo. Until that level a student’s objective or a goal is to build the foundation and at the same time, reduce the bad habits or the “natural” ways of body movements.

Open handThis may be a difficult concept but is an important one. In other words a student will learn the basic karate ways or the conditions that are necessary to learn the real karate techniques. Open hand 2For an example, if you ask a street person to make a fist he can probably make something that is similar to a karate fist, seiken 正拳.However, if you ask him to show you an open hand he will show you something like Photo A (natural open hand, left above). You ask him next to put the fingers together, he will show you a hand like Photo B (right above) but never shuto 手刀(knife hand, Photo C below). Shuto handIt will require a little learning to make a shuto hand. It will require numerous repetition to “forget” your natural hand forms (A and B) and make this shuto hand (C) “natural” to you.

This is just a small example and the scope of the preparation (forgetting the natural ways) will extend to all those stances, body shifting, postures, breathing method, leg strength, ki-ai as well as the dojo etiquettes just to name a few. All the knowledge and the techniques, indeed, are necessary before a practitioner can “start” the karate training. Note: In a perfect world, all those “pre-requisites” should be learned in advance, but in a real situation the learning of these matters are done in parallel as he engages in karate training. This is why you start from 8th kyu and move up to one kyu as you get yourself prepared for the real karate training.

BeltDisplayAnother subject; we all know that a beginner starts with a white belt. Before he reaches a black belt there are many different colors such as yellow, blue, green, etc. When I started my karate training in early 60’s there were only two colors before black. They were white and brown. If I remember correctly I started from Mu-kyu (no kyu) and with the first exam I became 6th kyu. We were all white until we reached 3 kyu (brown belt). Now most of the dojos start from either 8th kyu or 10th kyu. Some dojo even give a stripe to show a half kyu advancement. In one dojo the chief instructor told me he would never advance a student by one full kyu. With the first exam a student will become 10 and a half kyu. With this system this student has to take 20 kyu examinations before he reaches 1 kyu to go for a black belt. I did not make any comment to this instructor (luckily he was and is not in the same organization) as he considered karate as a pure business. I am not here to make a judgment on making karate a pure business but I personally would not send my sons to his dojo. Each student is different in his development and speed of learning. Though it may not be good for a business but I do not like having so many examinations in order to receive more money from of the students (or their parents).

A popular question I receive is if the colors to the kyu ranks are fixed or if there is a universal order. The quick answer is no. The basic idea is to start from white (no color) and the belt gets darker towards black. At many dojo the next color to white is either yellow or light blue and I think it makes sense. However, some dojo start with a red belt for 10th and 9th kyu. Red belt 2It is indeed a very dark color but it is intentional. As we all know that the drop-out rate is the highest with the white belt. The instructors believe the red color belt will give more motivation than a yellow or a blue to the beginners and they will stay with the training longer. This may be true and that would be another business decision a dojo instructor needs to make. Incidentally I find it interesting because in judo and a few karate organizations, a red belt is allowed to 9th and 10 dan. In our organization, we have a guideline of the colors that are associated with the kyu ranks but it is not mandatory. We let the member dojo decide on the colors for the kyu ranks.

Here is another popular question. After having a lengthy absence or illness, say more than a year or longer, you may wonder if you deserve to wear your old black belt. You may not be sure what color of a belt you should wear when you return to your dojo. There is no universal rule on this subject and it is up to the policy of an individual dojo. Many dojos or organizations do not mind a member wearing his black belt even if had a long absence. Some dojos have a policy that a returned practitioner has to wear a white belt for a certain period of time. That length varies and again, it will depend on an organization’s rule or policy.

If you are a black belt but you had a long absence and today is your first day back. What belt should you wear? Ask yourself if you can perform just as good as you did right before your lengthy absence. If you are exceptionally talented and if you are confident in your performance, then you can wear your old kuro-obi. However, if you are an average person then you feel less coordinated and out of shape. You may even forget some of the kata. If this is the case, why not wear a white belt? Or does your self-pride or ego bother you? I would rather look as a great white belt than a very poor black belt. Believe me the color of a belt does not help you with your karate. It will not make you look any better or worse so why not wear a white belt for a few months until you gain back your coordination, your stamina, etc? Length of being a white belt depends on the length of one’s absence as well as that person’s ability to gain back to the black belt level. It can be only a couple of months to a half year. It will all depend on an individual and your sensei should be able to tell you when you are ready.

So, what do you think of your kuro obi now? Asai Dojo kunOne thing I can tell you is that even if your belt is black, it will not help you with your karate or make you look any better. On the other hand, if you wear a kuro obi there will be a certain amount of obligation and responsibility associated with your belt. For instance, you need to train not once or twice a week but every day. You must be in shape and lead a healthy life. Obesity must not be tolerated for a black belt. You also need to live by Dojo Kun and follow Niju Kun.


Do we need those big knuckles? 拳ダコは必要か?

Kendako-3 The big knuckles a karate-ka has developed on his hands are called “ken-dako, 拳ダコ” in Japanese. They are typically developed on the index and middle fingers. Typically, the young karate-ka would proudly show off the bulging and discolored knuckles as a proof of their “hard” training. It is almost like a war medal or a qualification badge. We all know how these knuckles were developed. They became big from the ponding, thousands of times on the piece of karate training equipment called a makiwara. The question I bring up today is if these big knuckles are really necessary for a karate-ka to be called an expert. The thoughts I share with you are purely my own personal opinions. I do not claim what I am proposing is correct but one thing I can say is that I have a very strong opinion about this subject.

A makiwara has become an iconic training tool of karate. It seems that every dojo must have at least one makiwara post to claim its legitimacy. Most of the sensei of dojos I have visited almost always showed me their makiwara posts very enthusiastically. A makiwara comes in various heights, thicknesses, . and of many different kinds. I have already written a chapter on training with a makiwara in my book, Shotokan Myths. If you are interested in this subject please refer to Chapter 4 in my book (available through Amazon and Kindle). In fact, I must say that makiwara training is one of the most popular topics that the karate-ka wishes to discuss. I am the main contributor of Karate Coaching (, the worlds most advanced and comprehensive online karate instruction service provider. The editor told me that the demonstration clip of my makiwara training received the most attention.

As a conclusion in Chapter 4 of Shotokan Myths, I wrote in essence that the senior yudansha need to graduate from makiwara training and move to the next level of training. I almost wanted to write that makiwara training was no longer needed for the senior practitioners but I decided not to. I was afraid my true meaning would be misunderstood by such a comment. It is true that many senior instructors including the world famous ones are believers of makiwara training. Those instructors include Funakoshi, Shotokan founder, Mas Oyama, Kyokushinkai founder, Tetsuhiko Asai, Asai-ryu karate founder and Higaonna, 10th dan Goju-ryu. It is well known that Master Oyama and Higaonna both have huge knuckles. I am not completely against makiwara training. Those masters are professionals as well as karate experts so those knuckles are well fitting and there is nothing wrong with that.

After having written that I would still say “no” to the original question; “Do we need big knuckles?” I am sure many readers will wonder why I say this. Probably many of you will argue that by having big knuckles the practitioner’s effectiveness (destruction power) of his fists will increase. One karate-ka told me, “Sensei, a fist with big knuckles is like having a 44 magnum gun. If you have the untrained knuckles you cannot break the bricks or 10 tiles. A fist with the small knuckles would be a 22 pistol.” Even though I am not sure if the analogy is quite accurate, in essence I agree to what he was trying to tell me. Even then I still say we do not need a set of big knuckles in order to be qualified as a senior karate-ka. You do not need more than a 22 pistol to kill an assailant in a standard self-defense circumstance.

Let me explain why I claim that we do not need big knuckles.
• The biggest myth with huge knuckles is the following. The big knuckles are toughened to the point a fist with those knuckles can knock out any opponent. However, I must say that simply having big knuckles does not necessarily translate into a destructive or scary punch. In the case of a magnum gun it does have tremendous fire power no matter who shoots it. But you must remember it is a gun and a punch is a totally different story. In order to have an effective or devastating punch, one must learn how to punch correctly. A big and toughened fist can be a good tool or at least a scary looking one but it must be backed up by a punching technique to make it work or effective. If your punch is slow or delivered poorly then it will not matter regardless of the size or the hardness of your fist. In fact, if you want something for your self protection it is better or more useful if you would carry a baseball bat or a stick. If you are a professional karate-ka who can train 4 or more hours daily then it is not a problem to punch a makiwara for 15 minutes or even longer . However, I assume that the most of the readers can only train 2 or 3 times a week and each training period must be 90 minutes or shorter. In this situation I hate to see a practitioner spend the valuable 15 minutes pounding on a makiwara. Don’t you think spending that time on kihon or kata is better or more productive for your karate improvement?
• Secondly, I do not think the idea of showing off the deformed knuckles bodes well with one of the karate-do values called humbleness. This is the same idea of not showing off one’s blackbelt to the public. When I was in a business meeting in Japan I used to hide or position my hands so that the discolored knuckles would not be visible. It was not because I was embrassed with the fists or felt ashamed of karate training. In Japan the people would easily know what my fists mean and I did not want to intimidate anyone. I may sound as if I’m exaggerating but it would be like placing a knife on a negotiation table. I do not think the sight of big knuckles will bring any pleasure to anyone who are non karate-ka.
• The third reason is most important. As we advance in the skill level of karate we need to graduate from the crude punching and overt techniques to more advanced techniques. They are less visible and more like piercing or tapping techniques that are mainly aimed at the kyusho, the critical parts of thebody. The kyusho such as eyes, neck, ears and groin are typically soft and the toughened fits and hands are not necessary to deliver an effective attack. At those targets a fist, a knife hand, the finger tips and a wrist are all effective even if they are not toughened. In addition, once you learn the one-inch-punch technique you no longer need to smash your fist into an opponent to knock him down. Of course this is an ultimate technique but it is not magic and anyone can learn it.
• Another reason why I discourage anyone from developing big knuckles is the ill consequence it may cause. I am afraid the deformed knuckles could result in an arthritis symptom when a practitioner gets old. I do not have the medical expertise nor scientific data on this so I would like to receive the input from the readers on this.
• Lastly, I am sort of a romanticist. Frankly, I hate to see our fists deformed and making them look like those of a zombie (see the photo below). This is far from beauty and I detest it. Earlier I explained that the toughened fists are not necessary to deliver an effective karate technique. So, why would you want to deform your fists?


Karate is the genetleman’s art and this is exactly what Funakoshi wanted. For those reasons listed above it is my strong belief that the ugly fists do not fit in the art of karate-do.

These are my personal opinions and the feelings I have towards Kendako. You are welcome to leave your opinions and thoughts on this subject.

by Shihan Yokota

More information about Karate (Shotokan, Shito Ryu, Wado Ryu and Goju Ryu) – visit the most comprehensive Karate website in the world and join the


What are Internal system & External system?

I assume the readers already know that there are some categorization measures in martial arts. Each one shows the characteristics that supposedly differentiate one style from another, but the fact is that all the styles contain different amounts of the characteristics of both opposing personalities.  The categorization of a style itself will not bring any positive effect or a merit. The benefit comes only when we understand better about our style and to be able to include some training that will make our style more effective and meaningful.

asai (2)

So, let us start with a few popular categorization methods. The most common one is probably the differentiation by the long distance 遠距離 and short distance 近距離 fighting styles. Shotokan is a good example of the long distance fighting system and Goju-ryu, on the other side, is of the short distance system. Asai ryu karate is based on the standard Shotokan, a long distance fighting method, with an addition of the techniques from a short distance fighting system; White Crane kung fu was incorporated by Master Tetsuhiko Asai. This categorization method is rather obvious and comparatively easy to grasp. I do not believe it needs further explanation on this categorization method.


Another popular categorization in karate is Shorin 松林system and Shorei 昭靈system.  Shorin represents the system with the light and fast techniques and this is exemplified by kata such as Enpi, Kanku, Gankaku and Unsu. Shorei is, on the other hand, the system supposedly designed for the larger built karate-ka for the powerful movements and the slower techniques. Jion, Jutte and Sochin are the typical kata of Shorei style. This categorization has been explained by many other writers in the past.  I have my doubts on the legitimacy of this categorization method but I will not touch on it in this article.

One other popular categorization in karate is Naha-te 那覇手 and Shuri-te 首里手. Naha and Shuri both indicate the particular regions of Okinawa where the different styles of karate were developed and practiced.  Shotokan belongs to Shuri-te as our style came from the most popular Shuri-te style of Shorin-ryu 松林流. The most popular Naha-te styles are Goju-ryu and Uechi-ryu.

The categorization I wish to focus on in this article is called Internal System and External System. As far as I know this categorization method has not been explained too well to the Shotokan practitioners in the past. Among the Chinese martial arts this categorization method is as popular as the Northern Style and the Southern Style. The Internal System and the External System are written in kanji as 内家拳 and 外家拳 which literally means “inside house (or family) fist” and “outside house (family) fist”. Most of the practitioners now explain the meaning of “inside (family) house” as the internal workings of our body such as breathing and the mental aspect of a martial art.  However, it originally meant “not staying with the family” or “not living in one’s house” but living in a Buddhist temple.  Therefore, a famous Shaolin Temple kung fu (Photo below) and its derivative styles (literally hundreds of them) are called 外家拳, “outside house fist”.


Shaolin kung fu 少林拳法 refers to a collection of Chinese martial arts that claim affiliation with the Shaolin Monastery and the style generally emphasize long range techniques, quick advances and retreats, wide stances, kicking and leaping techniques, whirling circular blocks, quickness, agility, and aggressive attacks. Due to numerous Hong Kong movies, Shaolin Kung Fu is well known in the western world. However, there seems to be a lot of misconceptions and false beliefs about this fighting style. I suggest that the readers will learn more about it by reading the Wikipedia page:

The other group, “inside (family) house” or staying with the family means that a practitioner is not a professional monk. This is a group of the fighting methods that are not linked to the Shaolin Monastery.  The famous three styles of the Internal System are Tai chi Chuan 太極拳, Xing Yi Quan 形意拳 and Ba Gua Zhang 八卦掌.  They are classified as “inside house” fist.


Tai_chi-300x200Tai Chi Chuan (photo left) is a slow-motion and meditative exercise for relaxation, health and to a lesser degree self-defense. Tai Chi has gained enormous popularity throughout the world for its health benefits. In Chinese philosophy Tai Chi means the ultimate source and limit of reality, from which spring yin and yang and all of creation.

There are many different styles of Tai Chi from a popular slow motion style mainly for a relaxation and health purpose to a style that has some explosive moves that is better fit for self-defense training. To learn more about Tai Chi Chuan check the Wikipedia page here:’ai_chi_ch’uan


Xing Yi Quan or Hsing I Chuan (photo below) may be a lesser known Internal System or 内家拳 to the karate world but it is one of the best known internal martial arts and is recognized as the most effective fighting style. Xing Yi means “Shape Mind”, and Quan means “Fist”. The name derives from the style’s imitation of the movements and inner characteristics of twelve animals (dragon, tiger, eagle, bear, chicken, hawk, horse, monkey, snake, phoenix, swallow and alligator). The style was created by Marshal Yeuh Fei, a famous general of the Chinese Song Dynasty. One of the purposes of Xingyiquan training, like Taijiquan is aimed to improve Qi or Ki circulation in the body and to maintain health. The training is supposed to build up a level of internal Qi and this leads to the strengthening of both the physical body and the mental body.

For more information on Xing Yi Quan read the chapter in Wikipedia:



Ba Gua Zhang is one of the three orthodox “internal” styles and the name literally translates to Eight Trigrams Palm. These trigrams are symbols which are used to represent all of the natural phenomena as described in the ancient Chinese text of divination, the Book of Changes (Yi Jing). Zhang means palm as Ba Gua Zhang emphasizes the use of the open hand in preference to the closed fist. Ba Gua Zhang is based on the theory of continuously changing in response to the situation at hand in order to overcome an opponent with the circular and smooth skill rather than brute force. Its embusen is very unique as it is built on complex circular lines and the techniques are delivered not to the direction of the moves but mainly to the center of a circle or a side of a performer (photo right). I personally like this style as its foot work is based on normal walking steps which I really think makes sense. The performer walks with fast steps in circular lines and deliver the techniques while he is “walking”.

To learn more about Ba Gua or Pa-kua, read the chapter in Wikipedia:

Also, there are many good video clips of Ba Gua kata performance by some elder masters.  Here is a link to my favorite Ba Gua kata called “The old 8 mother palm” performed by Master Sun:

OK these are all Chinese style martial arts so you may ask “What is the relationship to our karate? “  We need to look at the other interpretation of Internal System and External System. You will see the relationship as we go over the key points of the Internal and External systems according to the second interpretation. I am aware each martial art and karate style has a characteristic of all the categories and the categorization including Internal and External System method any categorization does not clearly divide the styles. By learning the categories and the characteristics I wish to present the general nature of Shotokan and to show the whole perspective so that the readers can understand where our style sits.  With this exercise I hope we can identify the strength of Shotokan as well as the possible areas where it is lacking. The ultimate goal of this article is the knowledge and the better understanding of Shotokan karate and the possible improvement in training as the knowledge would, hopefully, reflect in the training menu.

Let us start with Internal System or styles. This system’s focus is on the practice of such elements as awareness of the spirit, mind, qi (breath, or energy flow) and the use of relaxed leverage rather than brutal muscular tension. While the principles that distinguish internal styles from the external were described at least as early as the 18th century.


Components of internal training includes stance training, stretching and strengthening of muscles, as well as on empty hand and weapon forms. In addition to the solo practice of the forms, many internal styles have basic two-person training, such as pushing hands. A notable characteristic of internal styles is that the forms are generally performed at a slow or normal pace. This is thought to improve coordination and balance by increasing the work load by moving slowly in low stances, and to require the practitioners to pay close attention to their whole body and its weight as they perform a technique. In some styles, for example Chen style of Tai Chi and Ba Gua, there are forms that include sudden outbursts of explosive movements. At an advanced level, the techniques are performed quickly. The ultimate goal is to learn to manage and control the entire body in every movement keeping relaxed with deep, controlled breathing, and to coordinate the body movements and the breathing accurately while maintaining perfect balance.

Let’s look at External styles or System next. External System is characterized by fast and explosive movements. Its focus is on physical strength and agility. External System includes both the traditional styles focusing on application and actual fighting, as well as the modern styles adapted for competition. Shaolin quan have many Wushu (martial arts) forms both with and without weapons that include the aerial techniques and explosive attacks. External styles begin with a focus on muscular power, speed and application. They generally integrate their qigong (Ki training) aspects in advanced training, after the excellent physical level has been reached.


From these definitions to which group do you think that Shotokan belongs? I guess the answer is easy. Shotokan definitely has many characteristics of the External System. By learning more about the characteristics of the other system, we can identify the area where Shotokan may be lacking. I hope you can make your karate training more comprehensive by adding some exercises to supplement the missing area. So, where are the areas in Shotokan that are possibly missing? They are probably Ki or Qi training, the breathing exercises and the softer movements. Can you identify if any of these may be missing from your training syllabus?


For the breathing training Hangetsu is an excellent kata through which you can learn to coordinate the kata techniques with breathing. However, you may complain that this is the only kata that was designed for such training in Shotokan. You are correct about this, but once you learn the breathing training idea of this kata, you can apply it to any kata you may know. The best kata to practice the breathing method from the JKA kata line up may be Jion, Jutte, Nijushiho, Meikyo, Sochin to name a few. Regarding the breathing exercise and method, I have written an article on this subject so you are welcome to refer to that article which can be found earlier in this same blog.



One other training that I consider missing in the standard Shotokan syllabus is Ki or Chi training. This is an important subject that needs to be understood by all the senior karate practitioners. It is also a deep subject that requires a lot of explanation. I also have written about this subject previously (What is “Ki”? and Ki exchange with a tree). If you are interested in the subject I suggest that you will read those articles that can be found in this blog. One more thing I wish to call your attention here, is that deep breathing is closely linked and is critically necessary to Ki training and exercise. Even if you do not understand anything about Ki, when you do your deep breathing exercise, believe it or not, you would be strengthening your Ki at the same time.

As Asai sensei introduced a short distance fighting method to the standard Shotokan karate to make it more effective, you can add the exercises of the Internal System to your Shotokan training syllabus. By doing so, you will be expanding your karate system beyond the standard Shotokan into something more comprehensive that you can call an Internal and External System. I hope this article has raised enough interest in the readers and that you will go out of the box and consider to invest some time and energy to make your karate “better”.

by Shihan Yokota

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Azami Press – Custom Martial Arts Certificates, Seals, and Logos

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July 12, 2013

Why we need to preserve Kata: Part 4

This is the last chapter of this article and I will conclude this article with the answers to a few of the popular questions about kata. 

best karate nakayamaFirst, let’s review what kata is again.  According to Wikipedia katais a Japanese word describing detailed choreographed patterns of movements practiced either solo or in pairs.  There are many different kata and they represent the samples of the fighting sequences.  We have covered, in the previous chapters, the reasons why the ancient masters created kata.The most important message of this article is that they created not only for the solo practicing purpose, but more importantly they believed kata was the best training tool for bujutsu karate, the most complex physical-mental activities.

Hopefully you agree that our kata must be preserved. At the same time, I am sure you are aware that there are so many unanswered questions with kata.I listed several of them in the last chapter and I feel strongly that they should be answered.If I did this here it would become a book so, for this article I will select the following three questions and share my thoughts with you. In the future, I may need to write a book just for the answers to those unanswered questions. 

      OK, let us start with the first question.

      1. Why kata techniques do not work in kumite? 

Here is a great question that many people wonder.This is true that many techniques you practice in kata cannot apply or they are not usable in your jiyu kumite.In fact, some people have given up kata because they could not find an answer that made sense to them.I will attempt to provide the answer here.Believe it or not, the answer is not that difficult or complicated. 

If you try to apply the kata techniques into the competition kumite, you are figuretively trying to plug a square into a round hole.In other words, you are not comparing apple to apple.Kata techniques are the techniques to maim, hurt or kill an opponent.You may say that the techniques that are used in a competition kumite could hurt or maim the opponent. That is true but there is one big difference here. Nihon nukiteThe purpose or the objective of the techniques you use in a competition kumite is to get a point.If you happen to knock out your opponent or break his bones, you will be disqualified. In addition, there are too many techniques of kata that are not allowed or permitted. For instance, stabbing your fingers into an eye (nihon nukite), kicking the groin, grabbing the hair, etc. are the key techniques in bujutsu but they are prohibited from competition kumite. 

Some of the short distance techniques such as enpi uchi, knee kicks, kagi zuki, and ura zuki are possibly allowed in a tournament kumite. However, how many times have you seen anyone getting a point with one of those techniques? Not too often or never, I suppose.The reason is obvious and simple.It is extremely difficult to make a visual if such a technique is effective in a non-contact tournament.A judge needs to see a long distance technique such as a straight punch or a kick to determine if such a technique would be effective. A short distance moving of an elbow or a knee is much more difficult for such a judgment so the competitors will not try those techniques even if they are allowed. 

Then you may ask “Do those kata techniques work in a real fighting?” Of course they do and that is what you train in bunkai. To be able to use those techniques in a real fighting situation, you must go through the kata training correctly.Let me define the word “correctly” here.  Remember the various processes I have covered in the previous chapters that are needed in learning? You need to learn and acquire the techniques first.Then you need to do a lot of bunkai training to understand how those techniques are used and applied.With bunkai training, you need to learn how to use the techniques.There are so many different bunkai to each technique so it is almost impossible to practice and learn all of them.It will take much time meaning years to learn one kata and its bunkai. This is why the ancient master said you need to spend 3 or 5 years with one kata. 

How do we really know that we are capable of using those dangerous techniques?The only way is to test it in a real fight.However, I cannot recommend it to anyone to start a bar or a street fight just to test this.  The samurai of the ancient time faced the same dilemma with their sword skill. They either challenged to a duel or practiced a lot of kata and other solo training such as swinging the sword thousand times per day.As the real sword was too dangerous to use in a daily training with an opponent.They used bokken, wooden sword, but there were many serious injuries including death.So, they came up with another solution in the 19th century that was an invention of shinai, bamboo sword and the full protectors.                                                           kendo promo photo

This method became very popular and you can see this in the modern day kendo. Though kendoka may disagree, kendo is no longer bujutsu as it lost most of the real kenjutsu techniques. Why and how kendo lost bujutsu part is an interesting subject but we will not touch it here. 

One thing I want to add here is that the samurai believed kata was the best training tool to improve sword fighting skills. The idea of inventing a shinai and a full protector method was not conceived all through the medieval time when they had many wars and fights.It was invented only at the end of the feudal time of 19th century.

2.  Can kata be changed?

Here is a heavy and also a controversial question. 

The ancient masters (as well as the modern day masters) told us not to change the kata, however, many of us know that most if not all of the kata have been changed to some degree since the time when Funakoshi brought karate to main land Japan.

In fact, Funakoshi himself changed the kata, some slightly (such as Chinese sound names to Japanese sound names, switching Heian Shodan and Nidan) and the other greatly (i.e. nekoashi dachi to kokutsu dachi, mae geri to yoko keage, etc.). So, was it ok because he was the master who brought karate to Japan? 

Let me share my thoughts and personal opinions on this subject.  空手道教範

A wise-man said in the past that there is nothing that does not change except for the change itself.I believe the kata is one of the cultural products that include languages, dances, etiquette, customs, etc. No matter how hard we may try to keep these things unchanged but I am afraid it is impossible. Kata is no exception.I already mentioned that our Shotokan kata have already experienced many changes and many of these changes came from Funakoshi himself.Even though I may not be qualified to judge the decision making of Master Funakoshi, after examining the challenging situation he was immersed while he was trying to propagate karate in Japan in early 1920’s, I concluded that these changes had to be made and were acceptable changes if not improvements.I wrote an article on this particular subject and it was included in my recent book, Shotokan Mysteries (available from Amazon bookstore). If you are interested in reading further in this subject I suggest my book, Shotokan Mysteries.

I am not encouraging nor supporting, in general, the idea that kata can be or should be changed.In fact, my stance is that we must keep the kata we have exactly the way they are.As kata is a textbook and the model that means it is a standard form from which we practice our fighting method.We must have the uniform base to learn and teach among the millions of practitioners around the world. All of us forget or remember incorrectly as we practice the kata for many years.As our body make ups are all different so we naturally perform the same kata differently to some degree.If any of us whether students or instructors change the kata according to their liking or preference, we will have thousands of different version.Here is a good example of how kata should not be practiced:

So the conclusion to this question is that only a few masters who truly understand the art of karatedo, can change the kata. The average instructors and practitioners or almost all of us must not.Who are those few masters other than Funakoshi?One may be Kanazawa and another may be Asai (see the next question).

3.    Asai sensei created many new kata.Why did he do this?

There are two schools of thoughts on the number of kata one needs to learn. Motobu_Choki_kamaeI will not debate which is correct or better. I will only mention the brief description of the two schools. One school’s belief is that it is better to concentrate on only a few kata and master them thoroughly. This school is headed by Choki Motobu who was said to have practiced only Tekki or Naichanchi.The real story is that he, of course, knew other kata but he did not teach too many kata in his class.He emphasized more on bunkai and applications. Apparently, he used the techniques from Tekki kata mainly so the people incorrectly believed Motobu knew only one kata.    

Another school is headed by Master Asai who knew and practiced 150 kata. The belief of this school is to learn many kata to widen the variety of the techniques. Demo jump The following statement is very controversial but he believed the JKA 26 kata was not enough to cover all the necessary techniques.He was the technical director of JKA for many nears through 80’s until the breakup of JKA in 1990.  After passing of Masatoshi Nakayama (then Chief Instructor of JKA) passed in 1987.He wanted to change the syllabus of JKA and it met a very strong opposition from many JKA instructors.After the departure of Asai in 1990, many of the JKA dojos reduced its kata menu down to 25 or 24 by taking off either Wankan or/and Ji-in from the list. 

Of course, it is up to the individual organizations to decide how many kata they should choose to practice. My stance is to keep the number of kata small to the beginners and intermediate.Once a practitioner become a dan rank, I recommend he will gradually increase the number of kata and not to stop with 26 kata if you are 3 dan or 4 dan and above.  How many more is a difficult question.I know all together 50 or so kata.It is extremely difficult to keep training all those kata and remembering them.My memory is poor so maybe the younger practitioners would have no problem but I do not know.The upside of knowing many kata is that it forces you to practice them otherwise you will forget.Another benefit is that you will be able to practice the additional techniques that are missing in 26 JKA kata. 

However, there are some downsides too.You will have to spread your time over many kata thus you will have less time to focus on the key kata unless you increase the amount of training time.  If you are a Shotokan then there are many instructors who can help you or teach you with the JKA kata.There are only a few who can teach or coach you with the Asai kata.If you wish to practice the kata from Shito-ryu or Goju-ryu then you have to belong to another style and another dojo.It is possible to learn a kata from a video clip and I met many practitioners who do this.I say it is good that they are motivated to learn a new kata despite lacking a proper instructor and instruction.I respect that but on the other hand, I find many are practicing incorrect techniques.There are three major problems with this learning method.One is the video is limited in showing the techniques and the viewers can easily misunderstand some of the moves.For instance, sometimes it is not clear if a stance is sochin dachi or zenkutsu dachi.Tateken zuki (vertical punch) can be viewed as seiken zuki (regular straight punch). 

I find an important and possibly a serious flaw for an Asai created kata is that many of the video demonstrations are done by the non-certified instructors who learned the kata incorrectly. Asai sensei published a kata textbook for Junro (I also published the English version of Junro) so for Junro there is no problem. You can check the textbook and you can be sure of the techniques. 

Bunkai photos FunakoshiIn addition, the video clips of Junro by JKS are done correctly and I recommend to use them as your training tool. For the other kata we have video in which Asai sensei himself performed the kata but there are many other we do not have his video performance or an official textbook that we can go by. The biggest and most serious problem with a video learning is that you will not learn the bunkai which is the heart of kata.Without knowing the true applications from the senior instructors who know the bunkai, the kata you learned will be only a karate dance.


There are many other interesting questions about kata and most of those questions have not received the logical answers. One day I will list those important questions and attempt to provide my thoughts and understanding to shed the light on the mysteries of kata. 

Why we need to preserve Kata Part 3


BujutsuThe ancient masters knew that solo practice was necessary for bujutsu practice so they created kata.  Interestingly they did not invent the kumite nor the kihon syllabus.  In fact, both of them were invented and added to karate training in early 20th century.  The ancient Okinawan masters practiced only kata and bunkai (applications).  Why?  The key to this question lies in the way they practiced (one to one teaching) compared to the modern day training (many students of various skill levels). It is an interesting subject and I will touch this again briefly later in this chapter.

I need to bring up an important concept as I explain kata.  In the learning process there are two kinds of learning that are necessary particularly for the martial artists. As far as I know this concept has never been fully explained (especially the second part) to the karate world in the past.  I do not think it is a difficult concept but it is easily missed or unrecognized.

The concept needs some explanation and understanding this is important when we come to the objectives of kata which will be discussed later.

Learning process 1: Acquiring technique:

One learning need for a karateka is pure acquisition of a technique. As we all know in karate we must learn many basic techniques such as stances, punches, kicks, blocks and many other skills.  After learning the single techniques separately you need to go on and learn various combinations (and the number of combination is huge).  The important point in this learning process is the word, “acquire”.  This is not only learning, knowing and understanding how the techniques work but one must acquire them which means the techniques must be a part of his body system.  In other words, after having learned the correct techniques one needs to be able to execute them as he wishes.  To get to this stage it requires a large number of repetitions to ingrain those techniques into your body system.  We have already discussed that in this process a solo practice is needed. During a solo practice a practitioner does not have anyone or anything to disturb his execution thus he can pay 100% of attention to his performance. By doing this he can get the maximum result in learning and acquiring the techniques.

Learning a technique by repetition is well known and all of us, karateka, have been doing this diligently.  To learn all the sports and new activities you need to do some repetition as well.  Even to learn a small task that may involve only the fingers or hand repetition is required. Here are a couple of examples.  When you went to a Japanese restaurant for the first time you could not handle the chop sticks well.  You needed to practice using them. It’s a new skill of fingers coordination that you had to acquire.

chopsticks funny

Have you experienced a situation that you had to write with the non-natural hand (left hand if you are right handed)?  It is a hand and wrist coordination that had to be transferred to the non-natural side. In both cases, you will become capable after many repetitions. Of course, we can list all the sports activities as almost all of them need to be learned with some numbers of repetition.

The ancient masters created a kata as a sample of a fight sequence and this is an excellent tool to learn and acquire the basic fighting ability.  It is impossible to cover every techniques and scenarios no matter how long one kata may be. Therefore, they selected the most frequently used combinations in an attempt to make a best sample of the actual fighting.  A student can practice this slowly initially to learn the correct techniques then he will repeat until the techniques become a part of him.  I will cover more on kata after the explanation of the second learning requirement.

Learning process 2: A technique of how to use/apply those base techniques:

I am sure the first one was easy to understand and everyone knows. Here is the second one which I feel has been ignored and missed by many karateka and instructors.  It is the learning of how to use or apply the techniques in a real situation (in a fight) and that itself is a technique.  This is extremely important and I want to make sure the readers especially the instructors understand this concept.


In the first process a student learns how to punch, for an example.  After learning a base technique of how to throw a punch, it is still not enough to make it useful or usable. To make it usable (effective) he must learn the other critical skills (techniques) such as ma-ai (distance), accuracy (hitting a correct target spot), body shifting with your techniques and many more. For an example, unless a person can shift to or move to the correct distance in relation to his opponent, his punch or kick will be ineffective no matter how fast or strong his attacking technique may be.  If he misses a target then that technique is also ineffective. Those skills (ma-ai, accuracy, body shifting, timing, etc.) are the necessary additional techniques to “use” or “apply” your base karate techniques.

The same principle applies in a smaller degree to the regular sports events. It may be easier to understand this point so let me give you some examples to illustrate it. ButterflyLet’s take a swimming situation. A swimmer wants to learn how to do a butterfly stroke. As this is a very difficult stroke, say, he learns it on the ground.  After learning the body moves for this stroke eventually he will be able to simulate all those movements while he is on the ground.  This means he learned the technique of this stroke.  However, this does not mean he can swim with this stroke in the water even if he knows how to swim with other swimming styles.  He needs to get in the water and be able to do this stroke and to swim forward.

Basketball-Shooting-WorkoutsAnother example we can look at is a basketball situation. A player learns how to shoot a ball nicely.  He learned a technique of throwing a ball. This technique alone does not guarantee what he needs to do in a game that is to make a hoop. Making a hoop requires other techniques such as accuracy, distancing, etc.  In a baseball playing, one learns how to swing a bat.  Just learning a technique of bat swing is not enough, of course.  He needs to learn the other requirements such as timing, distance, etc. so that he can actually hit a ball.  However, even that is still not enough.  You have to be able to hit the ball in a way that a ball will fly to the desired direction and the distance.  I hope I made the point regarding this concept.  Now when you review these cases this second requirement or technique is much more difficult to acquire than the first one.  With the first one all you need to do is to repeat the actions.  With the second one you have to acquire a skill that may or may not come with the simple repetition.  This is why I say that understanding this point is important for all karateka. Let me divert to another idea which I will not go into but just to touch as it is a very interesting part of human learning.  There are certain learning skills that needs a knack (in Japanese kotsu 骨) and not simply by the repetition.  Let me give you a few examples.  One is how to ride a bicycle and another is how to float in the water. I can also include a skill to whistle.  In all cases, you try several or many times and it does not necessarily result in a gradual improvement.  You really don’t know how you did it but at one point you find that you can do it.  Once you learned how to, whistle, float or ride a bike you will retain those skills almost all your life even if you do not practice them for many years.  Most of the people can acquire these skills but a few cannot.  These skills did not come from only pure repletion you needed to acquire a skill or ability.  There was, somehow, a different mechanism in our body that made possible. Believe it or not, you can find this kind of skill in the karate skills.  Let me give you two examples: one is the ability of kime and the other is ki. I will not go into this in this article and maybe I will have another article touching this interesting subject.

funakoshi_makiwara2So, the ancient masters created kata for the solo training but did they expect kata would fill the particular requirement of “how to use the base techniques”? Obviously they did not.  They realized the short coming of simply punching in the mere air so they invented a makiwara.  Hitting a makiwara can teach you some things that you cannot learn from practicing only kata. The things you can learn from hitting a makiwara include ma-ai, accuracy, power delivery, etc.  However, the target is fixed and the distance is the same, therefore, it lacks many conditions and situations.  For instance, you cannot learn timing as the makiwara does not move or react.  It also does not teach you ma-ai and accuracy in the moving situation as the target is always fixed and unmovable.  Many modern day karateka use a punching bag as it can move (swing). It is softer so the hitting it feels somewhat similar to hitting a real person. However, the movements of a hanging bag are unfortunately very simple and also predictable.  It does not move like a person so it is still not a perfect training tool.

As a conclusion, to learn the technique of how to use the base techniques, we need a person or an opponent.  With my conclusion you may protest saying “What’s going on? You told us that kumite was not a good training tool for karate training earlier.” I am well aware of this so now I tell you that the ancient masters taught bunkai and not kumite.

Bunkai photos FunakoshiBy doing this process the students learned how to use those base techniques in kata.  As you may already know bunkai is an application specific to a technique or a combination.  It is not free sparring or anything similar to the free exchanges of the techniques in a real fighting.  You asked earlier why the ancient masters did not create or adopt the kumite syllabus in their regular training. There may be two good reasons.  One is simply it was not very possible because in those days a sensei had only one or two students.  As I wrote earlier that the systematic kihon kumite became popular after a large dojo operation came into play in early 20th century.  Another reason was that they believed shiai (competition) was not appropriate or suitable for the bujutsu concept.  This is another interesting and challenging topic why it is so but we will not go into this in this article.

We know that this was the belief Funakoshi had and he did not change his mind all through his life. Nakayama, Chief Instructor of JKA had to hold off the All Japan Championship till 1957, the very year Funakoshi passed.  It is true that Okinawa masters did not approve or taught jiyu kumite but unofficially they did.  ThisMotobuChoki is one of the secrets Funakoshi did not share and the Japanese found there was an event  in Okinawa called kake dameshi from Choki Motobu (1870-1944, photo right), another Okinawan master who moved to Japan in 1921.

He is a very unique karate master and here is a general information about him in Wikipedia:

The word of kake dameshi is not a popular one in Shotokan karate so I am happy to introduce it. The first part, kake means to throw a technique. The second part, dameshi means testing or experimenting.  But this word meant a free fight or almost a duel (though the purpose was not to kill each other).  There were supposed to be a few open spaces or the crossing of the roads in a town where the karateka who want to test his karate skills would gather at night.

Motobu 1

Motobu was well known among the karate practitioners that he was the champion in kake dameshi. He was said to be so good that no karateka would accept his challenges. So he used to climb up to the top of a house near the crossing.  He would hide and wait there till an unsuspecting karateka passed the area then he would jump down and started fighting without announcing a formal challenge.  They say that no karateka would dare to approach those “dangerous” spots at night any more.  If you are interested in learning more about Choki Motobu, here is an article; “Through the myth…To the man” and was written by Tom Ross, at Fighting Arts.

There are two parts and here are the links;

Link 1:

Link 2:

The ancient masters, excepting Motobu maybe, did not openly admit that karate training must include free sparring or street fighting training.  They claimed it was barbaric and un-gentlemen like. Funakoshi was a highly educated man and he was a very proud person so it can be easily guessed that he would definitely forbid such training.  And this was exactly what had happened in his teaching in Japan. He was totally against free sparring practice and his students had to practice jiyu kumite secretly. He even resigned from a teaching position at one of the universities as he discovered that his students were secretly practicing free sparring.  I will not go into this area of why he did not see the value in free sparring in this article. He also prohibited shiai all through his life and I have already mentioned the first JKA tournament had to wait till the year Funakoshi passed.  I wonder very much why Funakoshi did not consider or realize the need of the technique called “using the techniques”.  This suspicion is somewhat surprising even to myself as Funakoshi was an educator and he was a true believer of bujutsu karate.



In Part 4, hopefully the final chapter, I will cover the topic of changing and preserving kata.